Sunday, March 18, 2018

Saimesophase Explanation with Flags: When Sister-Siamese Chromatids are United from G2 to Metaphase

Siamesophase happens when the genetic (N) number is (2N+2N').  Siamesophase crosses over from Interphase into the M, Mitotic Phase.  To be more specific, Siamesophase lasts from G2 until Metaphase.  This is when the original number of chromosome 'data' is doubled on each chromosome.

Just after Metaphase (from Anaphase until Late Cytokinesis) there is a quadruple number of Chromosomes (4N) in a single cell.  This is when somatic cells are Quadraploid.  Cells are Quadraploid for a short amount of time; it may seem strange but it is a natural state of a cell's life cycle.  Consequently nearly all human somatic cells have a history of having 92 chromosomes in each cell (from Anaphase until Late Cytokinesis).  Thus 'normal' human cells can have 23, 46, or 92 chromosomes. Nearly every biology book published today has overlooked this fact!

Siamesophase was named after the famous Thai-American Conjoined twins - Chang and Eng Bunker, who were born in Siam.    Like Nihonium and Tennessine, the name Siamesophase was chosen to put Thailand on the map of genetics, since Thailand's old name was Siam. Likewise the first human to recognize and name this part of the cell's cycle that crosses both Interphase and M Phase is Siamese.

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