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Friday, July 31, 2015

Flag for people of Gypsy and Sikh heritages


The Jipseek flag is for persons who are modern mixes of Gypsy and Sikh heritages.  The Gypsy people are thought to originate from the Punjab area some 1000 years ago.  Sikh men are required to wear turbans in public; while the mystical Gypsy in a turban stereotype, which is no longer true, is a prominent feature in the American imagination.

Gypsies or Romani can be of any faith, most are Christian, some are Muslim, and a small minority follow traditional folk spirituality.  Sikhs by definition are their own religion created in a fusion of the Abrahamic traditions with Hinduism.

Thus this flag is for persons who have one Sikh parent and one Romani parent, or some degree of this pair.  Coincidentally genetic and linguistic evidence connects the Romani people as originating out of the Sikh homeland of Punjab, long before the genesis of the Sikh religion.  The colours of the flag are based upon the official Roma flag, while the central icon is a combination of Roma and Sikh icons.

Thursday, July 30, 2015

Flag for persons of mixed Jain and Druze faiths - "Drewjainian"


The Druze and Jain are mysterious religions from Arabia and India, respectively.  This flag is for persons who have one parent of the Druze religion and the other from the Jain tradition.  Druze are often confused as being Muslims, likewise people of the Jain path are thought to be Hindu.  Coincidentally both the Druze and Jain recognize reincarnation as a fundamental belief, but their approaches to connecting with the divine are radically different, from each other and both from Islam and Hinduism.

Note there is a connection between the hand of the Arabic Hamsa Fatima and the Jain Ashimsa Hand.

The design of the flag takes its colours and designs from the official Druze and Jain flag but rotated on its axis 90 degrees.  The Jain hand of 'do no harm to a living creature' is white and has the 24 slotted mandala coloured with the four of the Druze colours.  In the center the 'ahimsa' be at peace is a white star reflective of the Druze star but it completely coloured white as the fifth element of the Druze colour scheme.  The white star and white hand denote the divine grace that can be found in both approaches to life, when lived in its best quality.

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Photo Credit: from RT video below



Wednesday, July 29, 2015

Cat Flag


Hang in there? Cat on Screendoor flag presents a welcoming and playful atmosphere. Semi-two-and-a-half deminsion flags are rare and eye catching flags, that can make you pause and ponder the moment.

The Flag for people of mixed Jewish and Druze faith, Reuniting the Tribes of Jacob and Jethro


The flag for persons who are a mixed interfaith of Jewish and Druze religions is composed of five colours: red, yellow, blue, white, and green.  The five colours are reflective of the Druze flag while the Star of David and blue-white stripes commemorate the modern Israeli banner.  Consequently any person who has one Jewish parent and one Druze parent, or some dynamic of this familial connection, may fly this flag to honor their graceful Druze and Jewish heritages.  This lends the term Drewzish or Drewish?

So what is a Druze?  Basically another less known and talked about faith from the Holy Land.  The Druze people are a Semitic people with Arab window dressing.  The Druze faith is connected to the Patriarch Abraham distinct from Islam, Christianity or Judaism.  They also have thier own set of Divine Documents, known as the Letters of Wisdom. Uniquely the Druze are descended from the Biblical patriarch Jethro.

In America the name Jethro has a country bumpkin connotation or is associated with the hard rock band Jethro Tull.  However people who regularly study the Bible will recognize that it invokes the spirit of the Old Testament, in particular Moses's father-in-law Jethro the Midianite

Monday, July 27, 2015

John Oliver's New Confederate Flag Proposal


Satirical news comedy has become something of a mainstream source of information in the modern world.  The following burger on a white background flag was created on HBO's John Oliver weekly show.  It features a Carl's Jr. burger with a hot dog and potato chips.  After viewing the commercial for the protein pounding snack, John Oliver joking presents it as the new American Confederate flag.

In this episode Mr. Oliver points out that nearly a quarter of the food produced in the United States is thrown away by businesses and people.  Note that wasting food is also wasting  oil, labor costs, and business expenses that are used in producing food.  It really is an obscene process that is essentially throwing money into a dump. 



Sunday, July 26, 2015

Flag for persons of mixed faiths from Scientology and the Moonie, Unification Church


The 20th century saw two new religions come into being from opposite ends of the Earth in 1954.  The Church of Scientology was established as a religion in California in 1954.  And across the world on May 1, 1954 the Moonie Church was established in South Korea.  These religions were the last to from, before the Dawn of the Space Age

 This flag is for persons who have one parent born into Scientology and another born out the Unification Church, or some factor of this match.  Coincidentally both religions were founded after the 'end' of the Korean War in 1953.

 The founder of Scientology, L. Ron Hubbard, was originally born out of the American Christian tradition, while Sun Myung Moon came from the old Korean tradition, which is mostly a fusion of Buddhist and Confucian teachings with a heavy emphasis on firm and heavily structured Confucian familial ideas.  This flag links distant preachers born from opposite ended cultures from Nebraska to North Korea

Of Yin and Yang, the founder of Scientology was exposed to the religions in East Asia.  Coincidentally notions of reincarnation were adopted as core beliefs within Scientology.  Coming from the other direction, Moon was able to take Christian teachings and reincorporate it into a new vision adding additional sacred scripture.  The Newest Testament built upon the Bible is known as The Divine PrincipleLikewise the writings of Hubbard are prolific but a key document to spiritual enlightenment was made apparent with his fantastic work, Dianetics.
 
Establishing a new religion may seem like a hard thing to do it, and it really is.  However Scientology and the Unification Church have passed their 60th year anniversary and met the challenges that arise with any new approach to life.  They have passed beyond the heated and passionate Crucible of Doubt that many new religions face, blossoming into new fragrant faiths while challenging the status quo.  Scientology and the Unification Church are natural clashes unto harmony of teachings from the West and East, or rather East to West?  The Moonie path and Scientology faith are watermarks of religions that echo the strange and changing times of the 1900s, as the peoples of the Earth sought to make it a better place for one and all.  







Saturday, July 25, 2015

Flag for persons of mixed Baha'i and Mormon Faiths


The colours of the flag include a basic rainbow pallet of red, orange, yellow, green, indigo, navy blue, purple, and white.  The beehive is an icon related to Mormonism while the seven pointed star is reflective of the Baha'i faith.  The green disc with the indigo circle represents the Earth, as these two religions were awoken when the world was fully aware of itself as a global civilization, likewise both paths offer 'updated' teachings and advocate a call to recognize foreign nations not as enemies or aliens, but rather as family.   This flag is for those very rare persons who have one ancestor from the Baha'i tradition and another from the Mormon tradition. 

The Baha'i and Mormon faiths are relatively new voices to grant access to the divine.   Like Yin and Yang, these two gateways to the Holy Temple opened at nearly the same time frame on opposite hemispheres of the Earth in the middle of the 1800s.   Interestingly these two congregations were last to arise before the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species.  Note, the Mormon faith emerged out of the Protestant American teachings set forth in the Holy Bible, while the Baha'i faith sprouted forth out of the Shiite Iranian tenets set forth from the Sacred Koran.

Both the Mormon and Baha'i hold the year 1844 as christened with special kind of karma. In the Baha'i faith an Iranian by the name of Siyyid Ali Muhammad Shirazi became a paramount spiritual leader as the Bab, who was later executed for adding new law to the dominant Iranian faith.  Across the world in the America in the very same year, 1844, the founder of Mormonism, Joesph Smith, was martyred by a violet mob in Carthage, Illinois for his non-traditional views of Christianity and family structure.  After the execution of the Bab and Joseph Smith two venerated leaders would arise to lead and build a sturdy foundation for the Baha'i and Mormon movements.  Out of the Christian tradition came Brigham Young from Vermont; and out of the Islamic tradition came Mirza Husayn-Ali Nuri, better known as Bah'au'llah.





Friday, July 24, 2015

Hindu-Buddheic Flag or Flag of Mixed Hindu and Buddhist Marriages


The flag for persons with a real, ethnic and religious connection to both Hinduism and Buddhism uses the colours red, orange, yellow, blue, and white.   On the left hoist side on a filed of orange is the meditative ohmm symbol, which looks like a number three with a tail and an 'upside down' fermata symbol.  A hidden fermata symbol within the Ohm is quite an amazing coincidence as it is a musical symbol that means A Grand Pause.   Likewise correct meditation or prayer of the Ohmmmm or AUM leads to a grand pause of the 'ego' and return to the highest 'reality-truth-divine' root of spirit. 
 
In a way the Hindu-Buddheic tradition is a match to the Judeo-Christian term, since the original Jesus was a Jewish and the original Buddha was Hindu.

The nations with a large population of mixed Hindu-Buddhist marriages include Nepal and India.  However there is a growing number in Canada and the United States, especially in British Columbia and New York City.




Wednesday, July 22, 2015

Flag Chart for Canaidan born outside of Canada


Some Canadians were not born in Canada.  Several thousand Canadians where were born abroad when there Canadian parents were living in foreign nations.  Likewise many immigrants to Canada can use the flag that fits their national origins.  But note laws of closest to the continent apply.  So Canadians born in Trinidad & Tabago, Barbados, and Puerto Rico should use the South America Canadian born abroad flag since these islands are closest to South America, than North America.

These flags can be used by immigrants who become naturalized Canadian citizens.





Flag for Canadians of Unknown Birth Origins


The flag for Canadians born in an unknown location conserves the Canadian colours of red and white.  The flag is a six checkered field of red and white, with the counter of colours for the Canadian Maple Leaf.

List of famous Canadian who don't know where they were born:

James Howlett - Better known as Wolverine or Logan of the X-men  (Fictional)

Monday, July 20, 2015

Flag for Canadians born in Asia



The flag for Canadians born in Asia uses a multitude of colours that represent the four regions of Asia: Eastern Asia, Southern India Asia, Western Islamic Asia, and Central-Northern Asia.  This flag can be used by any Canadian born in Asia, and the Russian portion of Asia. 

List of Prominent Asian-Canadians
Oliva Chow - Canadian MP from China/Hong Kong 
Godfrey Gao - Canaidan Actor and Model from China/Taiwan
Conrad Santos - Candian Politician from the Philippines (when it was USA territory)  
 Aditya Jha - Canadian Social Activist born in Nepal 
Rathika Sitsabaiesan - Canadian MP born in Sri Lanka 
Ujjal Dev Singh Dosanjh - Canadian Premiere of British Columbia born in India 
Adrienne Louise Clarkson - Canadian Politician and CBC news person from China/Hong Kong
Zara Durrani - Canadian Actress from Pakistan 
Nazanin Afshin-Jam - Former Miss World Canada from Iran 
Amir Khadir - Canadian Politician from Iran





Flag for Canadians born in Africa

The flag for Canadians born in Africa is an equal part tri-bar, meaning that it does not have a Canadian pale but uses pan-African colours.

List of Canadians from Africa

Willie Coetzee - South Africa born Hockey player
Lisa de Nikolits - South Africa born Canadian Writer
Israel Idonije - Nigerian born Canadian NFL player
Fatima Houda-Pepin - Quebec Politician from Morocco  
Ali Velshi -Canadian CNN Journalist from Kenya
Rachid Badouri - Moroccan born Canadian Comedian  




Flag for Canadians born in Europe



The flag for Canadians born in Europe is simple.  It has three yellow leaves in formation, like the flight pattern of Canadian Geese in flight.

List of Prominent European born Canadians

William Berczy - Canadian colonial painter born Germany 
Igor Vasilyevich Ivanov  - Canadian Chess Master born in Russia
Sir John A Macdonald - First Canadian Prime Minister 1867 born in Scotland 
Alexander Mackenzie - Second Canadian Prime Minster born in Scotland
Corneliu Chisu - Canadian MP born in Romania
Cornelius Krieghoff - Canadian landscape painter born in the Netherlands
Mario Silva - Canadian MP born in Portugal
Peter Arend Stoffer - Canadian MP born in the Netherlands
John Limniatis - Canadian soccer player born in Greece, and same age as the new Canadian flag
Mike Lazaridis - Canadian technology leader born in Europe portion of Turkey 





Flag for Canadians born in Oceania

The flag for Canadians born in Oceania is an inverse of the Canadian Pale, but with red in the center.  The Canadian Maple Leaf is on the hoist side while the southern cross is on the fly side.

Prominent Canadians born in Oceania

Scott McNeil - Canadian cartoon voice actor born in Australia 
John Best - Victorian Canadian politician from Geelong, Australia
Colin Vaughan - Canadian leader born in Sydney, Australia  

Adam Firestorm - Canadian pro-wrestler from New Zealand
Christine Nesbitt - Olympic Canadian Gold Medalist from Melbourne, Australia 



Flag for Canadians born in South America



The flag for Canadians born in South America maintains Canadian colours but has two smaller maple leaves. 

List of prominent Canadians born in South America
Ian Hanomansing - CBC television journalist from Trinidad and Tobago 
Alberto Guerrero - Canadian composer and pianist born in Chile 
Pablo Rodríguez - Canadian MP from Argentina 
Joseph Facal - Canadian politician and leader from Uruguay
Beto Cuevas - Canadian pop musician born in Chile  
Cesar Palacio - Canadian Toronto politician born in Ecuador 
Vic Toews - Canadian politician born in Paraguay 




Flag for Canadians born in North America

The flag for Canadian citizens born in North America is composed of the Canadian colours of red and white. 

List of prominent Canadians born in North America


Eduardo Sebrango - Canadian soccer player born in Cuba
Ona Grauer - Actress, noted for Stargate roles - born in Mexico (Mexican-Canadian)
Sandra Gulland - Canadian writer from Florida, USA 
Klea Scott - Actress from You Can't Do That on Television born in Panama, when it was a US territory 1968 (Same birth locale of John McCain)
Brendan Fraser - Canadian at birth from Canadians Citizens living abroad in Indiana, USA
Lauren Holly - Canadian born in Bristol, Pennsylvania; x-wife of Jim Carrey, duel USA-Canadian Citizen 
Trisha Romance - Canadian water colour painter born in the State of New York
Michael "Pinball" Clemons - Canadian Football magnate born in Florida, USA
Colm Feore  - Canadian Actor born in Massachusetts, USA
Elizabeth May - Canadian MP born in Connecticut, USA 
Richard Hall - Canadian Politician from California, USA
Daniel Clark - Canadian Actor from Illinois, USA   
Matt Frewer - Canadian 80s icon Max Headroom from Washington DC, USA 

Laura Secord - The "Canadian Bella Boyd" heroine of the 1812 War of Southern Aggression was born in Massachusetts, or rather Bella Boyd was the "Confederate Laura Secord" during the 1861 War of Northern Aggression - depending on your point of view.  




Sunday, July 19, 2015

Flags in Under the Tuscan Sun - 2003


 Several fantastic flags appear in the movie Under the Tuscan Sun 2003.  In this shot a flag toss is taking place. This film is based upon the book written by Frances Mayes originally published in 1996.  You can read all about her wonderful books here: http://www.francesmayesbooks.com
 Like a bright coral reef the colours of Tuscany shine bright in this film.
 The flags follow the rules of a specific kind of Italian heraldry.  Like a visual bouquet of flapping and colours, these flags wavers put on a show.
 The flag show is also a competition.  Many of these flags break the rules of a what it is to be a 'Good Flag' by using multiple colours and intricate patterns.  Nonetheless these vexillologically speaking 'Bad Flag' are beautiful sights.
Here the heroines of the story are seen watching to fantastic flag dance and display.  They even have their own flags to wave.










Trumpet Flags from the film - Under the Tuscan Sun 2003




In 2003 flags appeared in the movie Under the Tuscan Sun.  After falling out of love and needing to find a new beginning, an American writer movies to Italy and learns about the different colours of love.  Most importantly for this blog are the flags that appear during the flag ceremony at a village in Tuscany.

Here the colourful trumpet flags of white, sky blue, green, and purple can be seen hanging from the trumpets.




Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Beard Burger Logo - from the 2015 SpongeBob SquarePants movie

The Beard Burger is basically a Krabby Patty.  In the 2015 SpongeBob SquarePants movie a certain burger logo can be seen - The Beard Burger Logo.  It consists of a burger with a crossbones in the background.

Here drinks in treasure chests can be seen in front of the pirate themed burger stand.  The pirate theme truly is appropriate since the formula for the Beard Burger was pirated from Mr. Krabs. 




A flagship of one for the Burger Beard flashes its hamburger pirate badge and motto "Home of the Beard Burger."








Bikini Bottom Distress Flag from SpongeBob Movie, Sponge Out of Water 2015

 In The SpongeBob Movie Sponge Out of Water 2015 a purple tattered flag can be seen several times when the community is served an apocalyptic order of chaos.
Here SpongeBob and Plankton float by and another purple distress flag can be seen flying on a burning building.








SpongeBob SquarePants and Plankton Team Up Flag


A checker flag of yellow and green appear in the movie The SpongeBob Movie Sponge Out of Water 2015.  In order to save Bikini Bottom SpongeBob and Plankton team up.  Not since the match up of Magneto and Professor X has Hollywood produced an amazing anti-hero team up for the ages.
Yellow resents Plankton and green SpongeBob; or is it the other way around?

Tuesday, July 14, 2015

Flag for Australians born in an Unkonwn Location

The majority of persons under this flag are orphaned Australians.  But there are many Aussies who don't know where they were born, subsequently they can fly this flag. 


Flag for Australians born in North America





Odd as it may seem many Australians were born in North America.  This flag denotes that these Australians are from North America.  This flag is composed of the colours red, blue, and white.  The field is white and a blue bar is on the fly.


Famous Australians from North America


Ricky Grace - Basketball Player from Texas
Didier Cohen - Media Personality from California
Marcia Hines - Singer from Massachusettes

Terri Irwin - Crocodile Hunter's Wife from Oregon

Kristina Keneally - politician and 42nd premiere of New South Wales 

Dr Mike Nahan - Politician from Michigan 
Nicole Kidman - Actress from Hawaii (Dual Citizen of USA and Australia)




Flag for Australians born in Oceania


The flag for Australians born in Oceania but not Australia is composed of five colours: blue, yellow, white, and red, and black. Thus Australians born in Fiji, Tuvalu, Micronesia, New Zealand, or New Caledonia (French New Australia), can use this flag.

List of Famous Australians born in Oceania (Not Australia)

Lote Tuqiri - Rugby Player from Fiji
Simone Nalatu - Netball Player from Fiji
Emily Williams - Singer from New Zealand



 


Flag for Australians born in South America


The flag for Australians born in South America has a white field and blue stars.  Other colours include green and blue.  A vertical bar near the fly denotes that it is a part of the Americas.


Famous Australians from South America

Caroline Correa - Actress from Brazil
Reinaldo - Soccer player from Brazil 
Telmo Languiller - Politician from Uraguay
Nathalie Kelley - Actress from Peru
Adriana Xenides - Australia's Wheel of Fortune's "Vanna White" from Argentina 



Flag for Australians born in Europe


This flag may seem redundant but there are heaps of Australians born in Europe, namely the United Kingdom.  The colours of the flag are blue, yellow, red, and white.  The flag states 'Australia!' but with a difference.  The yellow stars are reflective of the EU.

Thus Australians of the nations listed here can fly this flag: Western Russia, Norway, Sweden, Greece, Italy, Germany, France, Spain, Estonia, Bulgaria, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Lithuania,Wales, Scotland, England, Andorra, Romania, Moldova, Croatia, Serbia, Denmark, Latvia, Bosnia, Albania, Montenegro, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czech, Hungary, Ukraine, Northern Azerbaijan, Northern Georgia, Finland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, San Marino, and Kosovo.

Famous European Born Australians

Olivia Newton-John
Angus Young of AC/DC
Sam Worthington 
Naomi Watts
Peter Andre







Flag for Australians born in Asia


The flag for Australians born in Asia has a yellow field with blue stars. It can be flown by any Aussie who was born in Asia.

List of Australians born in Asia
Penny Wong - Politician from Malaysia 
Peter Bell - Footballer  from South Korea
Christabel Chamarette - Senator from India
David de Kretser - Governor for Victoria from India 
Michael Johnson - Politician from China/Hong Kong  
Adam Liaw - Master Chef from Malaysia  
Gemma Pranita - Singer Actress from Thailand  



 

Flag for Australians born in Africa


The Australian-African born flag is composed of four colours: black, red, yellow, and green.  The field is black and the stars are yellow.  This flag is for an Australian who was born in Africa by Australian parents or is transitioning to Australian citizenship.

List of Famous Australians born in Africa:

John Maxwell "J.M." Coetzee - Intellectual from South Africa
Kofi Danning - Soccer player from Ghana
 Majak Daw - Soccer player from Sudan
Anton Enus - Newsman from South Africa
Dean Geyer - Singer Song Writer
David Gonski AC - Righterous Business Leader
George Gregan - Rugby Player from Zambia
Janine Murray - Gymnist from Zambia
Selwyn - Singer from South Africa
Tim Omaji - Singer from Nigeria






Flag Chart for Australians born Abroad



These flags mark the continent where an Australian person born overseas hails from. These flags are on the same scale of the Australian state flags.  They conserve the original design to honor Australian heritage but with modified colours.


Please note these flags are not ethnic nor national flags.  Rather they are geographical in nature.  They simply represent the continent where an Australian was born.



For example imagine if an Irish-Australian family were working overseas at the Tokyo Embassy in Japan, and gave birth to a son in Tokyo.  The son born of Australian parents in Japan would not be Japanese, ethnically nor by nationality.  Japan is only his birth place, subsequently he would be entitled to fly the Yellow Aussie born in Asia Flag. 


For a grand lot of Aussies born overseas, they can fly this flag as it has the UK and Ireland under its fold.  Similar to the current national flag it differs with yellow stars and central white cross. 




Each flag has a simplified canton with a unique pallet of colours, except for the two flags beyond the Old Wold and Americas.These flags are designed to evoke an Australian spirit yet show off the diverse voices that now compose modern Australia.




Terry Irwin is currently the best known American-Aussie at the moment.  Although she was born up and over in the USA, she is now an Australian Citizen since 2009. 


In the future several million Aussies will certainly be born in Antarctica and the islands nearest to theTruely Southern Continent. 





Monday, July 13, 2015

Christian-Hindu Flag


Interracial marriages may seem like an modern phenomena, but they are as an ancient as the Great Wall of China.  This flag is for persons of two faiths - Hinduism and Christianity.  This flag has a black cross and a rainbow pallet of colours.  The colours are reflective of the Chakra system of spirit and mind from ancient India.  In the canton is the meditative Ohm symbol.

 http://www.interfaithshaadi.org/index.php/hindu-christian-marriage-2
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/28/interfaith-marriage-saffron-cross_n_4170981.html 

It was in the Dark Crystal that the Ohm element of Hinduism melded with a Christian Imagination in a fantastic work of art in 1982.  See the video below:


Flag for Jewish-Muslim Families



The ego likes to categorize people into specific boxes, but there are many persons who don't fit into the established set of standard boxes.  In this case, this flag is for persons who happen to have one Jewish parent and one Muslim parent, or some ratio of this match. These persons have a spiritual connection to the Islamic world and Hebrew world.  People of faith understand that a higher being can be present in more than one place at the same time, but imagine a higher mind that is able to perceive several truths from a higher multi-dimensional axis?

The colours of this flag are yellow, blue, and white.  The blue Islamic crescent has an Israeli star with a partition of blue and white near the fly.  The colour yellow symbolizes the golden richness of their culture and history.  Blue symbolizes the enchanting power of the heavens and oceans.  Finally white symbolizes the purity of a divine spirit shining through their souls.  

List of Famous Muslim-Jewish People
Jordan Zain Weiner - Child of Anthony Wiener and Huma Abedin






http://www.interfaithfamily.com/relationships/marriage_and_relationships/Love_Despite_Opposition_An_Italian_Jew_and_Pakistani_Muslim.shtml 

http://www.judaism-islam.com/11-striking-images-of-jewish-and-muslim-weddings/

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/belief/2013/jan/19/muslim-jewish-marriages-brave-new-world 


Photo Credit: Weiner Family: http://www.siliconindia.com/news/general/11-Babies-Who-Are-Born-To-Rule-The-World-nid-145641-cid-1.html



Flag for Christian-Muslims


In today's world the cultural melting pot has produced a new fusion of cultures.  In this instance, this flag represents two faiths that seem to be at perpetual odds.  Nonetheless, there is a small minority of persons who were born of one Muslim parent and one Christian parent.  Consequently here is the flag for this exceptionally rare diamond like generation who happens to have a spiritual and genetic connection to both the Holy Bible and Sacred Koran.

The Christian-Muslim flag is composed of six colours: black, green, sky blue, red, yellow, and white.  The imagery of Christian Cross and Islamic Crescent signify that this person has a divine connection to Islamic and Christian Heritages.